No mental model of how things should work or what steps are relevant to its realisation. No ability to detect correct outcomes.
Mental model is one of conformity to established procedures. No ability to detect correct outcomes besides the general success or failure of the program.
Mental model is functional but not systematic. Can detect correct outcomes within narrow constraints of ‘correct’; cannot improvise or generalize to more complex states of correctness.
Can reason about interactions between procedural steps. Can abstract outcomes and reason about system states instead of specific functional states. Limited ability to improvise.
Can reason counter-factually (what do we NOT do effectively) about systems. Sees outcomes as emergent of system interaction. Improvisation is the default modus operandum.
Able to reason about the entire problem domain while also reasoning about specific problem instances. Can detect misidentified problems (solving for the wrong thing). Able to transcend the limits of systematic reasoning.